After the 2017 general election, in which Theresa May`s Conservative Party remained without a majority, a confidence and supply agreement was reached with the Democratic Unionist Party.  John Keys` national party government formed a minority government in 2008 through a confidence and supply agreement with the ACT, United Future and the Māori Party.  A similar agreement reached in 2005 led Helen Clark`s Labour Party to form a coalition government with the Progressive Party, with the support of New Zealand First and United Future. After the 2014 elections, National resumed trust and delivery agreements with United Future, the ACT party and the Māori party. In 2017, although National won more votes than Labour in the election, New Zealand First chose to form a coalition with Labour to help them change government, with support from the left-wing Green Party in favour of trust and supply.  On the other hand, trust agreements are more flexible. In New Zealand, trust and supply agreements are common under the MMP system used in the country. Parties that offer trust and care play a more important role than in other countries, with MPs from supporting parties often appointed to ministerial portfolios outside the cabinet.  New Zealand has codified the procedures for forming these governments in its Cabinet Manual.  On November 2, 2018 (less than two months after the 2018 New Brunswick general election), the Legislative Assembly voted 25 to 23 in favour of a Progressive Conservative motion to amend the Speech from the Throne so as not to declare confidence in the government.
Premier Brian Gallant then hinted at his intention to step down as prime minister and recommended that the Lieutenant Governor give PC leader Blaine Higgs the mandate to form a minority government: “I will visit the Lieutenant Governor as soon as possible to inform her that I will resign as Prime Minister, and I will humbly propose to him to allow the leader of the Conservative Party, to form a government and try to win the trust of the house. People`s Alliance leader Kris Austin said he would work with the new government “in the areas we agree on,” and reiterated his promise to support the Progressive Conservatives in confidence votes for an 18-month period. . . .